Biosphere Reserves of India
A Biosphere reserve is notified sites which is established by a country and recognized under UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme. This programme was initiated by UNESCO in 1971 and is dedicated for promotion of sustainable development based on local community efforts and scienctific research. The motive of formation of a biosphere reserve is to conserve in situ all forms of life, along with it’s support system, in its totality, so that changes in natural ecosystems could be continuously monitored and evaluated. It works to foster the harmonious integration of people and nature for sustainable development through participatory dialogue, knowledge sharing, poverty reduction, human well-being improvements, respect for cultural values and by improving society’s ability to cope with climate change.
The Biosphere reserve consists of three zones as following,
It comprises a strictly protected zone that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation
It surrounds or adjoins the core area(s), and is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can reinforce scientific research, monitoring, training and education.
The transition area is where communities foster socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable economic and human activities.
The first biosphere reserve of the world was established in 1979, since then the number has increased to 701 biosphere reserves in 124 countries, including 21 transboundary sites across the world. Great Bear Lake and its surrounding watershed in Canada’s Northwest Territories is considered as the largest biosphere reserve in the world, whereas Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park is the largest biosphere reserve in India.
Presently, there are 18 notified biosphere reserves in India, spread across various states of India.
|S. No.||Name of Biosphere Reserve||Date of Notification||Location|
|1||Nilgiri||1st September, 1986||Part of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnatka).|
|2||Nanda Devi||18th January, 1988||Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts (Uttarakhand).|
|3||Nokrek||1st September, 1988||Part of Garo hills (Meghalaya).|
|4||Great Nicobar||6th January, 1989||Southern most islands of Andaman And Nicobar.|
|5||Gulf of Mannar||18th February, 1989||Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu).|
|6||Manas||14th March, 1989||Part of Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Bongaigaon, Nalbari, Kamprup & Darang(Assam)|
|7||Sunderbans||29th March, 1989||Part of delta of Ganges and|
Brahamaputra river system
|8||Simlipal||21st June, 1994||Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa).|
|9||Dibru-Saikhowa||28th July, 1997||Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts|
|10||Dehang-Dibang||2nd September, 1998||Part of Siang and Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.|
|11||Pachmarhi||3rd March, 1999||Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.|
|12||Khangchendzonga||7th February, 2000||Parts of Khangchendzonga hills and Sikkim.|
|13||Agasthyamalai||12th November, 2001||Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and adjoining areas in Kerala.|
|30th March, 2005||Covers parts of Anupur and Dindori|
districts of M.P. and parts of Bilaspur
districts of Chhattishgarh State.
|15||Kachchh||29th January, 2008||Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendra|
Nagar and Patan Civil Districts of Gujarat.
|16||Cold Desert||28th August, 2009||Pin Valley National Park and around; Chandratal and|
Sarchu&Kibber Wildlife Sancturary in Himachal Pradesh
|17||Seshachalam Hill||20th September, 2010||Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts|
of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of
|18||Panna||25th August, 2011||Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts|
in Madhya Pradesh